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On the Keto Diet? Ditch the Cheat Day Boy or Girl? Living Well. View all the latest top news in the environmental sciences, or browse the topics below:. Because of sampling problems, the principles presented must be used cautiously. Nevertheless, it is hoped that this paper offers some guidelines for managerial action and, with its references and suggestions, provides an information source for directions for future research on the elderly.
Generally, this area of research has been rather neglected, giving increased importance to the work being conducted by the Center on Aging at the University of Maryland and reported in a subsequent paper. Gelb found the physical and life style changes of the elderly to produce an emphasis on services over goods.
This study of Houston seniors suggested the need for such services as home security, car maintenance and repair, and lawn care and also found high interest in "no-frills" products and services A Progressive Grocer study of Baltimore elderly Zbytniewski found 71 percent to rate generic items as good as other brands and 70 percent to rate them as a "better value" than other brands.
Apparently generic products present an opportunity for marketers to the elderly.
Bernhardt and Kinnear studied the leisure time activities of over Atlanta seniors. They found attending church 58 percent , going out to eat 51 percent , and reading books 43 percent to be more often pursued than fishing 15 percent , attending baseball games 15 percent , and doing crossword puzzles 10 percent. Seniors were heavy users of long distance telephone 65 percent , mass transit 43 percent and even taxi cabs 32 percent. In the area of branding, the evidence is not clear. A study of seniors by Media Decisions concluded that oldsters rely more on manufacturers' brands while a Progressive Grocer study Zbytniewski found increased acceptance of private and generic brands.
With respect to brand loyalty, Towle and Martin studied seniors and found six life-style segments. Apparently the elderly are not terribly concerned about package size or label print size. Lambert studied over Florida seniors and found only 8. However, conflicting results came from a qualitative study of elderly food shoppers Food Marketing Institute Eight focus group sessions with seniors in four geographically distinct markets produced a high incidence of complaints about foods being Packed in quantities that are too large for their households.
They also complained that the print used in labels is often hart to read because it is too small or difficult to understand.
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Senior women appear fashion conscious with Martin finding two-thirds of 75 Missouri women perceiving themselves as fashion conscious. Elderly women were found to plan their purchases and keep up to date with fashion trends. Yet another study Richards studied 83 female members of Senior Citizens organizations in Western Texas and concluded that they were little influenced by contemporary fashion trends.
The findings on elderly innovativeness are not conclusive. Schiffman found oldsters', in one building in Queens New York, new product trial of a new salt substitute to be inversely related to the amount of perceived risk. Three studies Koeske and Srivastava ; Bearden and Mason ; and Bernhardt found the elderly to have a lessened sensitivity to unfairness and a tendency to hole back in their complaining behavior.
Bearden and Mason found seniors to show the greatest amount of complaints against refrigerated 24 percent , canned 9 percent. Most "place" research has focused on the shopping behavior of seniors.
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Samli and Samli and Palubinskas discovered the elderly usually shop near their homes generally because they do not have their own transportation. They also found store loyalty to prevail--especially where store management can offer advice. Elderly with higher incomes and older ages displayed greater store loyalty. Bernhardt and Kinnear , in a study of Atlanta seniors found senior citizens to shop more traditional department stores and less in discount stores.
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In supermarkets, Progressive Grocer Zbytniewski found Baltimore seniors to be store loyal with nearly 80 percent shopping at their "regular" store. The elderly were conscientious shoppers with 70 percent reading store ads before entering the store. Similarly, Mason and Smith found the elderly using newspapers and personal observation while shopping as their primary sources of grocery product information. The Progressive Grocer study Zbytniewski found older shoppers to shop more leisurely than time pressured younger shoppers and to avoid non-traditional supermarket departments such as delicatessens and health and beauty aids while frequenting perishables departments such as meat and produce.
Gelb found Houston shoppers welcoming special treatment. Seniors desired special clothing departments, carry-out service for their packages, clerks their own age, and stores showing an explicit interest in retirement age business such as a "Welcome, Seniors"' sign in their window.
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With respect to their use of such informational aids as open-code dating, nutritional labeling, and unit pricing, Bearden and Mason found the elderly to make less use of these shopping aids than other age groups. Over 40 percent of the seniors were not familiar with unit pricing compared to 12 percent for other age groups and less than 20 percent of the elderly considered open-code dating essential to food shopping compared to 75 percent of the younger sample.
The Food Marketing Institute cross validated these earlier unit pricing findings. Their focus groups found varied experiences with unit pricing and concluded that the elderly need greater consumer education about unit pricing. Reid, Teel, and VanderBergh found that while elderly women perceive risk in shopping, they did not exhibit interest in utilizing information sources to reduce risk.
Barnes and Peters studied seniors in one northeastern state and found retail stores clearly the most frequently used method of retailing. While only 8 percent indicated they never used a retail store, no more than 25 percent ever purchased by mail, telephone, or door-to-door. The frequency of use of these other modes were very low-mail 7.
Most research in the communication arena has focused on advertising--and much of that with the stereotyping of seniors in advertisements. Northcott , Aronoff , and Signorelli and Gerbner conducted content analysis and found seniors to comprise less than 5 percent of the characters coded in network programs in contrast to their 9. Seniors were found to be stereotyped as ineffective and passive In television commercials, Harris and Feinberg found the profile of the elderly to be unhealthy, unflattering, unstylish, and uninteresting The elderly portrayal reflects more the "old-old" segment with their physical and general health problems.
At the same time, Delaware seniors studied by Schreiber and Boyd were found to view the portrayal of the elderly in TV commercials to be favorable.
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Sixty-nine percent indicated commercials were "often" or "always" useful in their buying decisions while only 30 percent found commercials "never useful. Again, through content analysis of over magazine advertisements, Grantz, Gartenberg, and Rainbow found seniors, especially women, were under-represented.
Yet they found magazines painted a less negative image of the elderly than television commercials. This was true across all magazines studied. With respect to media usage, Bernhardt and Kinnear found oldsters the heaviest age group overall to view television. Elderly, especially women Schreiber and Boyd , showed the highest daytime watching as well as news watching between 6 p. Viewing declines at 9 p. With radio, oldsters listen to less FM programming than other age groups. They do listen to as much AM as other age groups and this is generally done at home Over half the elderly read a daily newspaper and almost 70 percent read the Sunday edition.
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Submission closed. Overview Articles Authors Impact Comments. About this Research Topic Most western societies have to deal with a dramatic increase of the older population. Keywords : cognitive control, aging, neuroscientific and behavioral methods, control mechanisms, enhancement of cognitive control Important Note : All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements.
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